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2019羽毛球公开赛: 現代主義大師——貝聿銘

令這位建筑師備受贊譽的美國國家藝術館東樓、法國盧浮宮玻璃金字塔等作品,都是在建筑史上有一席之地的杰作。

1989年3月29日,貝聿銘坐在巴黎盧浮宮的玻璃金字塔旁邊。圖片來源:Bernard Bisson—Sygma via Getty Images

上周,美籍華人建筑師貝聿銘在紐約曼哈頓的家中去世,享年102歲。貝聿銘是上世紀最著名的建筑師之一。令他備受贊譽的美國國家藝術館東樓、法國盧浮宮玻璃金字塔等作品,都是在建筑史上有一席之地的杰作。

對我這個土生土長的丹佛人來說,他的作品給我留下印象最深的,是市中心的一座具有國際風格的建筑,它由4棟樓組成,高22層,長約一個街區。這座建筑于1960年完工,雖然它在貝聿銘的作品中并不出名,但它的設計是非常超前的,它是一個集酒店(起初是希爾頓酒店,現在已經換成了喜來登酒店)、停車場、公共空間和百貨商店集一身的商業綜合體。這種地產項目現在已經司空見慣了,但在 60年前卻是一種革命性的設計。因此,該項目毫無懸念地獲得了1961年美國建筑師協會的國家榮譽獎。(遺憾的是,該建筑的一個亭子后來被拆除了,百貨商店也重新裝修了,隨著時間的推移,由于人為或自然損毀,酒店內部的很多細節也沒能保存下來。但它時至今日仍然是一座很美的建筑。)幾年后,貝聿銘又在附近完成了另一座宏偉建筑——國家大氣研究中心,它坐落在科羅拉多州博爾德的一片山坡上。貝聿銘的公司還設計了丹佛的16街商場,這家商場于1982年開業,成為了市中心的新地標。

貝聿銘不僅懂得設計能夠打動人的建筑和空間,也懂得設計與文化和社會相和諧的建筑。他的設計兼具傳統和前衛風格,能夠緊抓時代潮流,這也意味著他敢于突破邊界。同時,貝聿銘的設計又十分注重對自然環境的尊重和?;?。貝聿銘從來不是一個追求時尚和潮流的人,他的作品關注的是體積與重量、結構與材料,他對簡單的幾何圖案運用得爐火純青。

貝聿銘既是一位富有遠見的設計師,也是一名精明的商人,在政商兩界都游刃有余。隨著他的設計業務大獲成功,他的公司也變得十分富有和強大(貝聿銘于1955年創辦了自己的貝聿銘建筑事務所,1966年將公司的英文名從I.M. Pei & Associates變更為I.M. Pei & Partners,1989年又將其更名為貝聿銘考伯弗里德事務所(Pei Cobb Freed & Partners)。建筑評論家保羅·戈德伯格本周在《紐約時報》撰文稱,貝聿銘是“少數幾個對房地產開發商、企業大佬和藝術館的董事會(當然,第三種人通常由前兩種人組成)都同樣有吸引力的建筑師之一?!閉餼褪潛錯裁氖瀾?。

可以說,貝聿銘的成功與他的家庭出身有很大關系。他的父親葉祖貽是中國最大的銀行家之一。他從小就在廣州(也是他出生的地方)、香港、上海等地受到了上流教育。他的家庭文化根植于中國傳統,但也接受了西方的文化和理念。

貝聿銘的商業頭腦,很大程度上是在20世紀40年代,也就是他職業生涯的早期形成的。他在哈佛設計學院獲得碩士學位后,與他曾經的老師、包豪斯學派的創始人沃特·格羅皮烏斯并肩執教兩年。(貝律銘的本科是在麻省理工學院完成的,期間曾經短暫在賓西法尼亞大學就讀,后來轉出了該校。)最終,大膽的紐約開發商威廉·澤肯多夫聘請了貝聿銘,30歲出頭的貝聿銘開始進入建筑師生涯的上升期,很快實現了名利雙收。澤肯多夫在政界和商界的關系為貝聿銘提供了難得的跳板,在接下來的幾十年里,貝聿銘先后完成了克利奧羅杰斯紀念圖書館(1963年,印第安那州哥倫布市)、約翰肯尼迪總統圖書館(1979年,波士頓)和中銀大廈(1990年,香港)等一系列備受贊譽的作品。

很少有設計師的作品可以用“永恒”二字來形容。在評價建筑作品時,我一般也會避免這個字眼。但貝聿銘的多數作品用“永恒”來評價并不為過。他天才而又直白地使用各種造型和形狀,構造出宏大而又簡潔的建筑,從而展現出強烈而清晰的設計語言。他是一位真正的、純粹的、杰出的現代主義藝術家。如果你在一個地方看到了貝聿銘設計的建筑,你會清楚地記得它的風格。貝聿銘的很多作品現在也已經上了年紀,但它們仍然能夠刺激人的感官和情緒。貝聿銘是一位目光長遠的建筑師,他設計的建筑,也能夠經受住時間的考驗。

當然,貝聿銘也并非事事一帆風順。比如波士頓的約翰漢考克大廈就因為施工混亂、財務困難和多次延期,成了眾所周知的一個失敗項目。紐約的雅各布賈維斯會議中心項目也由于暴露了諸多問題而飽受批評。不過瑕不掩瑜,貝聿銘對建筑界乃至全世界的影響還將繼續存在下去。他一直以來的超前思想和遠見卓識就是他終極的力量。(財富中文網)

譯者:樸成奎

I.M. Pei, who died last week in his Manhattan home at age 102, was among the most celebrated architects of the last century, widely praised for his high-profile designs of the East Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., and the glass pyramid entrance at the Louvre in Paris.

For me, a Denver native, his standout is a 22-story, block-long, four-building concrete International Style wonder situated in the city’s downtown. Though it is perhaps one of the lesser-known projects in the Pei oeuvre, the multi-purpose Mile High Center, completed in 1960, was ahead of its time, combining a hotel (opened as a Hilton and now a Sheraton), parking, public space, and a department store. This kind of development may be the norm now, but six decades ago it was revolutionary. Perhaps not surprisingly, the project was the winner of the American Institute of Architects’ National Honor Award in 1961. (Sadly, a pavilion on the site was later demolished, the department store was garishly updated, and the hotel now lacks many of its original interior details, which were gutted or destroyed though changes over time. Still, it is a beautiful building to behold.) Several years later, Pei would complete another exceptional structure nearby, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, subtly nestled into the rocky foothills of Boulder, Colo. His firm would also design Denver’s 16th Street Mall, which opened in 1982 and helped establish a new nexus for downtown.

Pei understood not just how to make buildings and spaces that moved people, literally and figuratively, but how to construct culturally and socially attuned architecture. At once traditional and progressive, his work often captured the zeitgeist, which also meant it pushed boundaries. Yet it typically showed reserve and respect for nature and its surroundings, too. Pei was never one to chase styles or trends. His buildings were about mass and weight, heft and material. His structures were celebrations of simple geometric patterns.

Pei was both a visionary designer and a savvy businessman who had the shrewd ability to move within the wealthy and powerful with ease. And with the massive success of his architectural operation, I.M. Pei & Associates, which he set up in 1955—it later became I.M. Pei & Partners in 1966, and then Pei Cobb Freed & Partners in 1989—he too became wealthy and powerful. Writing this week in the New York Times, architecture critic Paul Goldberger noted that Pei “was one of the few architects who were equally attractive to real estate developers, corporate chieftains and art museum boards (the third group, of course, often made up of members of the first two).” This was Pei’s world.

In a way, he born into it—his father, Tsuyee Pei, was one of China’s leading bankers. His upper-class upbringing included moves from Guangzhou, where he was born, to Hong Kong and later Shanghai. His family’s culture was rooted in Chinese tradition but included access to Western ideas and ideals.

Much of Pei’s business acumen was shaped early on in his career, in the late 1940s. After receiving his master’s from the Graduate School of Design at Harvard, he taught for two years alongside Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus School, whom he had also studied under. (Pei attended M.I.T. for his undergraduate studies and also did a stint at the University of Pennsylvania, which he transferred out of.) Eventually hired by the bold and brash New York developer William Zeckendorf, Pei began his architectural ascent in his early 30s, quickly entering a rarefied orbit of influence and money. Zeckendorf’s access to the wealthy and powerful provided a rare springboard for the young architect, who over the next few decades would go on to design lauded projects such as the Cleo Rogers Memorial Library in Columbus, Indiana (1963), Boston’s John F. Kennedy Presidential Library (1979), and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong (1990).

There aren’t many designers whose collective body of work could be called “timeless.” Or anyway, I certainly try to avoid that word when describing architecture. But with Pei, for the most part, it’s apt. His ingenious if straightforward uses of shapes and forms often led to grand, clean-lined buildings that showcased his strong and clear architectural voice. He was a true, pure, masterful modernist. You remember a Pei building when you visit one. The bulk of them have aged well, many of them for exactly that—their bulk. They evoke feeling and emotion. He was an architect who took the long view and as such made buildings that could stand the test of time.

Not everything Pei did was a smooth success, of course—Boston’s John Hancock Tower, with its construction snafus, financial troubles, and various delays, was a notable public failure, and New York’s Jacob K. Javits Convention Center has had more than its fair share issues and reasonable critiques, too. But there’s no doubt that Pei’s impact on the field of architecture, and on the world at large, has been—and will continue to be—long-lasting. His consistent, forward-thinking vision was his ultimate power.

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